• What is Computer

    Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes it under the control of set of instructions (called program), gives the result (output), and saves it for the future use.

  • Functionalities of a computer

    Takes data as input. Stores the data/instructions in its memory and use them when require Processes the data and converts it into useful information. Generates the output

  • Characteristics of Computer

    1) Automatic 2) High Speed 3) Accuracy 4) Storage Capability 5) Diligence 6) Versatility 7) Reliability 8) Reduction in Paper Work

  • Application of Computer

    1) Business 2) Banking 3) Education 4) Marketing 5) Health Care (Medical) 6) Military (Defense) 7) Entrainment 8) Railway

  • Application of Computer

    1) Business 2) Banking 3) Education 4) Marketing 5) Health Care (Medical) 6) Military (Defense) 7) Entrainment 8) Railway

  • Analog Computer

    An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English) is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

  • Digital Computer

    A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system.

  • Hybrid Computer

    A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex simulations.

  • Keyboard

    Keyboard is the most common and very popular input device which helps in inputting data to the computer Keyboards are of two sizes 84 keys or 101/102 keys, but now keyboards with 104 keys or 108 keys are also available for Windows and Internet.

  • Mouse

    Mouse is most popular pointing device to make selection on screen.

  • Joystick

    Joystick is also a pointing device which is used to move cursor position on a monitor screen. The function of joystick is similar to that of a mouse. It is mainly used in Computer Aided Designing(CAD) and playing computer games.

  • Light Pen

    Light pen is a pointing device which is similar to a pen. It is used to select a displayed menu item or draw pictures on the monitor screen.

  • Track Ball

    Track ball is an input device that is mostly used in notebook or laptop computer, instead of a mouse.

  • Scanner

    Scanner is an input device which works more like a photocopy machine. It is used when some information is available on a paper and it is to be transferred to the hard disc of the computer for further manipulation

  • Digitizer

    Digitizer is an input device which converts analog information into digital form. Digitizer can convert a signal from the television or camera into a series of numbers that could be stored in a computer.

  • Microphone

    Microphone is an input device to input sound that is then stored in digital form. The microphone is used for various applications like adding sound to a multimedia presentation or for mixing music.

  • Optical Character Reader(OCR)

    OCR is an input device used to read a printed text. OCR scans text optically character by character, converts them into a machine readable code and stores the text on the system memory.

  • Bar Code Readers

    Bar Code Reader is a device used for reading bar coded data (data in form of light and dark lines). Bar coded data is generally used in labelling goods, numbering the books etc.

  • Optical Mark Reader(OMR)

    OMR is a special type of optical scanner used to recognize the type of mark made by pen or pencil. It is used where one out of a few alternatives is to be selected and marked.

  • Monitors

    Monitors, commonly called as Visual Display Unit (VDU), are the main output device of a computer.

  • Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

    CRT or Cathode Ray Tube Monitor is the typical monitor that you see on a desktop computer. It looks a lot like a television screen, and works the same way. This type uses a large vacuum tube.

  • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

    This type of monitors are also known as flat panel monitor. Most of these employ liquid crystal displays (LCDs) to render images. These days LCD monitor are very popular.

  • Printers

    Printer is an output device, which is used to print information on paper There are two types of printers a) Impact Printers b) Non-Impact Printers

  • Impact Printers

    The impact printers print the characters by striking them on the ribbon which is then pressed on the paper.

  • Characteristics of Impact Printer

    Very low consumable costs Very noisy Useful for bulk printing due to low cost There is physical contact with the paper to produce an image

  • Non-impact Printers

    Non-impact printers print the characters without using ribbon. These printers print a complete page at a time so they are also called as Page Printers.

  • Plotter

    A plotter is a special kind of output device that, like a printer, produces images on paper, but does so in a different way. Plotters are designed to produce large drawings or images.

  • Speaker

    Speakers are another type of output device, which allow you to listen to voice like music, and conversation with people.

  • Projector

    A projector is a device that uses light and lenses to take an image and project a magnified image onto a larger screen or wall.

  • CPU –Central Processing Unit

    CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data, intermediate results and instructions(program). It controls the operation of all parts of computer.

  • Cache Memory

    Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory which can speed up CPU. It acts as a buffer between the CPU and main memory. It is used to hold those parts of data and program which are most frequently used by CPU

  • Primary Memory (Main Memory)

    Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which computer is currently working. It has limited capacity and data is lost when power is switched off. It is generally made up of semiconductor device.

  • Random Access Memory

    RAM(Random Access Memory) is the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program and program result. It is read/write memory which stores data until the machine is working.

  • Read Only Memory

    ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture

  • Types of ROM

    PROM (Programmable Read only Memory) EPROM(Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory) EEPROM(Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory)

  • What is Software

    Software is a set of programs, which is designed to perform a well-defined function. A program is a sequence of instructions written to solve a particular problem.

  • what is System Software

    The system software is collection of programs designed to operate, control, and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. System software serves as the interface between hardware and the end users.

  • What is Application Software

    Application software products are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment. All software applications prepared in the computer lab can come under the category of Application software.

  • What is word processor?

    The application program that is enabling the process of text is called word processing program or simply word processor. It allows the user to enter, view, edit, manipulate, store and print text material

  • Use of Undo option

    Undo option allows to cancel or remove the last changes taken place in the document such as editing, formatting etc.

  • Use of Repeat option

    Repeat option allows to repeat the last changes that canceled by undo operation.

  • How Many cases are available in ms word

    Sentence case UPPERCASE lowercase Capitalize Each Word tOGGLE cASE

  • How Many Alignment available for Text

    Left Right Center Justify

  • What is Tab Setting

    Tab stops are used to write text in a tabular form. In ms word a tab stop is by default set at .05 inch. Once it is set you can go one tabstop to another by pressing the tab key.

  • How many ways you can Create table

    There are three way to create table By draw table option By insert option By design wizard

  • What is Hyperlink

    This option allows you to link a text or image from website, file, email or any bookmark by which you can quickly jump to a specific file or location.

  • What is Drop Caps

    A drop cap is a large letter that begins a paragraph and drops through several lines of text .There are two option for setting Drop Caps as following:
    (a)Dropped(b)n Margin

  • What is Watermarks

    Watermarks refer to very light text or graphics behind the text of a document. It is often used by companies to add the logo to documents

  • Explain Page Setup

    This command allows you to sets the margins, paper source, paper size, page orientation and layout options for the active file

  • What is Mail Merge

    Mail Merge is a useful tool that allows you to produce multiple letters, labels, envelopes, name tags, and more using information stored in a list, database, or spreadsheet

  • What is Workbook

    A workbook is a collection of worksheets where the user works. A workbook can contain maximum 255 sheets to work in. Whenever a workbook opens, it display three workbook by default.

  • What is Worksheet

    a worksheet is a place where the user works and perform arithmetical and functional calculations. By default is named as sheet1,sheet2,sheet3,…etc. A sheet can renamed too.

  • What is Name Box

    it is the box on the left of formula bar that gives the address of address of each cell.

  • What is Active Cell

    Which cell is selected or ready to accept data known as active cell. It will display with dark outline

  • What is Range in Excel?

    A range is a group of contiguous cell, which form the shape of rectangle . You can specify a range by writing the starting cell address followed by a colon ( : ) and the end cell address

  • How many Types of Cell Reference in Excel

    There are 3 types of Cell Reference:

  • Explain the main purpose of an operating system?

    Operating systems exist for two main purposes. One is that it is designed to make sure a computer system performs well by managing its computational activities. Another is that it provides an environment for the development and execution of programs.

  • What is demand paging?

    Demand paging is referred when not all of a process’s pages are in the RAM, then the OS brings the missing(and required) pages from the disk into the RAM.

  • What are the advantages of a multiprocessor system?

    With an increased number of processors, there is a considerable increase in throughput. It can also save more money because they can share resources. Finally, overall reliability is increased as well.

  • What is kernel?

    A kernel is the core of every operating system. It connects applications to the actual processing of data. It also manages all communications between software and hardware components to ensure usability and reliability.

  • What are real-time systems?

    Real-time systems are used when rigid time requirements have been placed on the operation of a processor. It has well defined and fixed time constraints.

  • What is a virtual memory?

    Virtual memory is a memory management technique for letting processes execute outside of memory. This is very useful especially is an executing program cannot fit in the physical memory.

  • Describe the objective of multiprogramming.

    The main objective of multiprogramming is to have a process running at all times. With this design, CPU utilization is said to be maximized.

  • What is time- sharing system?

    In a Time-sharing system, the CPU executes multiple jobs by switching among them, also known as multitasking. This process happens so fast that users can interact with each program while it is running.

  • What is the basic function of paging?

    Paging is a memory management scheme that permits the physical address space of a process to be noncontiguous. It avoids the considerable problem of having to fit varied sized memory chunks onto the backing store.

  • What is fragmentation?

    Fragmentation is memory wasted. It can be internal if we are dealing with systems that have fixed-sized allocation units, or external if we are dealing with systems that have variable-sized allocation units.

  • What is multitasking?

    Multitasking is the process within an operating system that allows the user to run several applications at the same time. However, only one application is active at a time for user interaction, although some applications can run “behind the scene”.

  • What is caching?

    Caching is the processing of utilizing a region of fast memory for a limited data and process. A cache memory is usually much efficient because of its high access speed.

  • What is spooling?

    Spooling is normally associated with printing. When different applications want to send an output to the printer at the same time, spooling takes all of these print jobs into a disk file and queues them accordingly to the printer.

  • What is the relationship between operating systems and computer hardware?

    Operating system helps to make computer hardware available to the application programs. Without Operating System we cannot access computer hardware.

  • What Is The Difference Between Save And Save As?

    Use SAVE when you are revising an existing document.
    Use SAVE AS when you are creating a new document from scratch or an existing document. This will keep the original document untouched in its original format and create a new document with a new name.

  • What Is Macro?

    A series of keystrokes and mouse clicks that can be abbreviated into a single keystroke or mouse click.

  • What Is Clipboard?

     temporary storage location in Windows. The clipart will store one piece of information at a time when it is manually added to the clipart or is copied there.

  • What are charts in MS-Excel?

    To enable graphical representation of the data in Excel, charts are provided. A user can use any chart type, including column, bar, line, pie, scatter, etc. by selecting an option from Insert tab's Chart group.

  • What is the use of NameBox in MS-Excel?

    Name Box is used to return to a particular area of the worksheet by typing the range name or cell address in the name box.

  • What is Freeze Panes in MS-Excel?

    To lock any row or column, freeze panes is used. The locked row or column will be visible on the screen even after we scroll the sheet vertically or horizontally.

  • Explain Spreadsheet and its Basics.

    Spreadsheet can be compared to a paper ledger sheet. It consists or rows and columns and their intersection called cells.

  • Explain Macro in MS-Excel.

    Macros are used for iterating over a group of tasks. Users can create macros for their customized repetitive functions and instructions. Macros can be either written or recorded depending on the user.

  • What is Microsoft Excel?

    Microsoft Excel is an electronic worksheet or spreadsheet application which is used for organizing, storing, and manipulating and analyzing data. It is developed by Microsoft.

  • What are cells?

    The area where data is stored is known as cell.

  • Does each cell have unique address?

    Yes, each cell has a unique address depends on the row and column value of the cell.

  • What does the IF function in Excel?

    IF function is used in Excel to check whether certain conditions are true or false. If the condition is true then it will give the result accordingly and if the condition is false the result or output will be different.

  • What are the advantages of using formula in Excel sheet?

    Formula makes it easy to calculate the numbers in Excel sheet. It also calculates automatically the number replaced by another number or digit. It is used to make complex calculations easy.

  • What is Linux?

    Linux is a UNIX based operating system. Linus Torvalds first introduced it. It is an open source operating system that was designed to provide free and a low-cost operating system for the computer users.

  • What is the difference between UNIX and Linux?

    UNIX was originally started as a propriety operating system for Bell Laboratories, which later release their commercial version while Linux is a free, open source and a non-propriety operating system for the mass uses.

  • What is Linux Kernel?

    Linux Kernel is low-level system software. It is used to manage the hardware resources for the users. It provides an interface for user-level interaction.

  • Is it legal to edit Linux Kernel?

    Yes. You can edit Linux Kernel because it is released under General Public License (GPL) and anyone can edit it. It comes under the category of free and open source software

  • What is the advantage of open source?

    Open source facilitates you to distribute your software, including source codes freely to anyone who is interested. So, you can add features and even debug and correct errors of the source code.

  • What are the basic components of Linux?

    Just like other operating systems, Linux has all components like kernel, shells, GUIs, system utilities and application programs.

  • What is the advantage of Linux?

    Every aspect comes with additional features, and it provides a free downloading facility for all codes.

  • What is BASH?

    BASH is a short form of Bourne Again SHell. It was a replacement to the original Bourne shell, written by Steve Bourne.

  • What is CLI?

    CLI stands for Command Line Interface. It is an interface that allows users to type declarative commands to instruct the computer to perform operations.

  • What is the GUI?

    GUI stands for Graphical User Interface. It uses the images and the icons which are clicked by the users to communicate with the system. It is more attractive and user-friendly because of the use of the images and icons.

  • What Is The Purpose Of Slide Views?

    Slide Views are used to view slides in four different modes such as Normal. Slide Sorter, Reading and Slide Show.

  • What Are Placeholders?

    Placeholders are the areas on the slide that are enclosed by dotted borders.

  • What Is The Slide Shorter View?

    In this view, one can see slides in a shorter view. Therefore one has the facility to view all of the slides in a single view.

  • What Is The Slide Show View?

    This is the view that will be shown to the audience. This view also provides an additional menu when one hovers on it.


    is a computer program that has capability of self extracting to itself. It is a small block of codes that obtain the control of a PC’s, CPU and direct to perform unusual & often distractive actions.

  • Word Processors

    Create and edit documents and to communicate effectively

  • Title Bar

    Displays the name of the document

  • Status Bar

    Tells the page you are on and total page count

  • Scroll Bar

    Move a document up and down or left and right on the screen

  • Pointer

    Arrow lets you select commands on the screen

  • Dialog Box

    To enter specific information and options

  • Insertion Point

    Black flashing point

  • Wrap Text

    When the words wrap to the next line without hitting enter

  • Edit

    Make changes to a document

  • Undo

    To earse a step you have just performed

  • Margin

    Measures the distance from the edge of the page to the text

  • Tab Stop

    A Marker on the horizontal rules that shows where the insertion point will jump to when you press the Tab Key

  • Character

    An individual letter, number, symbol or punctuation mark

  • Font

    A type face and the unique design of a set of characters

  • Points

    Measurement of font size

  • Font Style

    Effects such as Bold, Italic, and underline

  • Formatting

    Overall look of a document

  • Format Painter

    A tool that allowa you to copy multiple formats from one part of a document to another

  • Alignment

    When paragraphs are lined up along a document's left or right margins

  • Numbered List

    A sequential number or letter comes before each new line of text

  • Zoom

    Changes a magnification without changing the font size

  • Memo

    An informal communication to share information quickly within an organization

  • group

    contains closely related buttons

  • Active cell

    The selected cell in the worksheet; indicated with a dark border.

  • Active sheet

    The worksheet currently displayed in the workbook window.

  • Adjacent range

    A single rectangular block that includes a group of contiguous cells.

  • Arithmetic operator

    A symbol, such as +, - , *, or /, used in a formula to perform arithmetic calculations.

  • AutoComplete

    The feature that helps make entering repetitive text easier. As you enter text in a worksheet, text that begins with the same letters as a previous entry in the same column is displayed.

  • Autofit

    To eliminate empty space by matching the column width to the longest cell entry or the row height to the tallest cell entry.

  • AutoSum

    A button that quickly inserts Excel functions that summarize all the values in a column or row using a single statistic 

  • Cell

    The intersection of a column or row in a worksheet.

  • Cell range

    A group of worksheet cells, which can be adjacent or nonadjacent. (Example - A2:G19)

  • Cell reference

    The address of a cell indicating its column and row location.

  • Column heading

    In Excel, the part of the worksheet that identifies each column by a different letter.

  • Cut

    To remove data from a cell and place it on the Office Clipboard.

  • Date data

    A value in a recognized date format.

  • Drag and drop

    To move an item (either text or a graphic) by selecting it and dragging it with the mouse.

  • Operating System

    An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

  • Utility Programs

    Utility software is system software designed to help to analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. 

  • Programming Languages

    A programming language is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions used to produce various kinds of output. 

  • Types of Programming Languages

    Machine Languages
    Assembly Languages
    High level Languages

  • Machine Languages

    Machine language is the only language that a computer understands. Machine language is a low-level programming language.

  • Assembly Languages

    An assembly language, often abbreviated asm, is any low-level programming language in which there is a very strong correspondence between the program's statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

  • High Level Languages

    high-level language (HLL) is a programminglanguage such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer.

  • Number system

    A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. 

  • Binary number system

    In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically "0" (zero) and "1" (one).

  • Hexadecimal number system

    The number system with base or radix digit is (16) is known as hexadecimal number system.This system requires 16 digits to represent the number.

  • Octal number system

    The number system with base or radix digit (8) is known as an octal number system.This system consists of eight digits, i.e. 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7.

  • Data Processing

    Data processing is the process in which the information is gathered/collected and stored in the form of electronic media and manipulated into a more useful form.

  • What is e-Governance?

    Governance may be an activity of governing/controlling a country by its Government, similar to controlling an organization or a company by its CEO or Board of Directors or controlling a household by the head of the house.

  • Multimedia

    A media which combines different content forms of text, audio, video, animation, interactive features, still images to get a finished product is defined as multimedia.

  • Operating System

    An Operating System (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs.


    Linux is an Operating System that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991.Linux is an example of Open Source Code Operating System.

  • Windows XP

    Windows XP was released in 2001.Windows XP comes in two versions, Home and Professional. XP contains accessories, communications and entertainment programs.

  • Graphical User Interfaces (GUI)

    graphical user interface (GUI /ˈɡuːi/) is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces.

  • Taskbar

    A taskbar is an element of a graphical user interface which has various purposes. It typically shows which programs are currently running.

  • Icons

    An icon is a small graphic representation of a program.

  • What is a File?

    A file is an object on a computer that stores data, information, settings, or commands that are used by a computer program.

  • What is Word Processing?

    A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.

  • Menu Bar

    The Menu bar is a part of a screen or a window where drop down menus are displayed.

  • Handling Graphics

    Graphics can be added into the word document by choosing the required options available in the illustrations group under the Insert tab.

  • What is Clip Art?

    Clip art, in the graphic arts, is pre-made images used to illustrate any medium. Today, clip art is used extensively. Clip art comes in many forms, both electronic and printed.

  • What is Text Wrapping?

    Wrapping means that text flows around a graphic object rather than over it.

  • Word Art

    Word Art is another powerful graphics tool that the user can use to make his documents with visual impact.Text in Word Art is formatted in unique shapes, orientations, and patterns that the user can easily modify and customize.

  • Tables

    A table is made up of rows and columns. The intersection of a row and column is called a cell.

  • Charts

    A chart is a tool which the user can use to communicate the data graphically.

  • Creating a Presentation

    PowerPoint presentation can be created in two ways as follows Blank Presentation Using a Templates

  • Line Spacing

    Line Spacing is used to adjust the space between paragraphs on the PowerPoint slides to fit more lines in a text box

  • Convert to SmartArt

    The last button in the paragraph section of the Home tab is Convert to SmartArt.This button will give more options to create a different look for the PowerPoint slides.

  • Checking and Correcting Spelling

    User can check the spelling in a presentation with a menu option. While typing a word, a misspelled words and grammar mistake words are underlined with a red line or green line below the word.

  • Making Notes Master

    The Notes are used to remember key points during a presentation in every slide.

  • WordArt Styles

    In the WordArt Styles, user can change the text style, text color, text outline color and text effects.

  • System Tools

    System Tools allows user to perform some basic maintenance from time to time to keep Operating System run smoothly.

  • What is an Electronic mail

    Electronic mail is a method of sending a message from one computer to another computer through internet.The first E-mail was sent by Ray Tomlinson in the year 1971.

  • Types of E-mail

    E-mails can be sent to single or group of people. There are three types of E-mails, Marketing E-mails. Notification E-mails and. Transactional E-mails

  • Marketing E-mail

    Electronic marketing is a method to send commercial messages to a group of people using E-mail.Marketing E-mails motivate user clients and leads.

  • Notification E-mail

    Notification E-mail allows the user to notify every particular event happens.They are also known as Trigger.More generally, the notification E-mail may be used in order to celebrate or mark an event like promotions, mela etc.

  • Transactional E-mails

    Transactional E-mail can be used in Business transactions.This E-mail is an expected information that the client wishes to check or confirm

  • E-mail Addressing

    An E-mail address is same as postal address.E-mail address identifies an “E-mail box” to which E-mail messages are to be delivered.An e-mail address is composed of several elements, for example "rock@example.com".

  • Configuring E-mail client

    First step is to configure E-mail client so that user can manage to access mails with the client.An E-mail client is a computer program used to access and manage user's Email.

  • Mailbox

    The Mailbox is an area in memory or on a storage device where e-mail is placed.In e-mail systems, each user has a private mailbox. When the user receives email, the mail system automatically puts it in the mailbox.

  • Inbox

    The Inbox is a collection of recent mails by user which is available to read, answer, store or delete.

  • Outbox

    The outbox is where outgoing e-mail messages are temporarily stored.While composing a message, most mail programs automatically save a draft message in the outbox.

  • Advance E-mail features

    User can Edit the style sheet of the E-mail by Customize fonts and colors, change the width of columns and add personal classes and preview and test the changes by sending a sample E-mail to their own.

  • Activating spell checking

    The spell check feature corrects spelling mistakes on forms, including web-based E-mail messages, discussion forums, and even intranet web applications.

  • RTF

    Rich Text Format is a document format that is readable by most word processors.The RTF file is a plain text file representation of a formatted document.

  • PDF

    Portable Document Format is a file format that preserves all of the fonts, formatting, colors, and graphics of a document.

  • Handling SPAM

    SPAM is an E-mail that contains unwanted content and/or solicitations of a nature that is considered vulgar and/or offensive by most people, and may also be fraudulent and/or dangerous.

  • Unified Payments Interface (UPI)

    Unified Payments Interface is an instant real-time payment system developed by National Payments Corporation of India facilitating inter-bank transactions. The interface is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India and works by instantly transferring funds between two bank accounts on a mobile platform.

  • Quick Response Code (QR Code)

    QR code is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan

  • Aadhaar Enabled Payment System (AEPS )

    The objective of AADHAAR Enabled Payment System (AEPS) is to empower a bank customer to use AADHAAR to access his/her AADHAAR " enabled bank account and perform basic banking transactions that are intra-bank or interbank in nature through a business correspondent.